今天,链安财经有幸邀请到了Radix CEO Piers Ridyard为大家带来关于“打破不可能三角,Radix为DeFi打造全新Layer1平台”的主题分享!


主持人: 部分新朋友对于Radix还不是特别了解,能否先请Piers给我们介绍下Radix项目以及其诞生由来?

Some new friends don’t know much about Radix. Can you please tell us about the Radix project and its origin?

嘉宾:Radix is the Smart Money Protocol, a next generation layer 1 platform that does not have the limitations of current layer 1 platforms. Radix has demonstrated 1.4 million TPS in 2018. This is the world record still today. Our new consensus algorithm ‘Cerberus’ is able to theoretically scale infinitely. We will deliver this capability in 3 steps: from 50 TPS to thousands of TPS, to unlimited TPS. We have a strong team with backgrounds at ConsenSys, Microsoft, Nvidia and Y-Combinator who are experienced in delivering complex products. All of our last milestones were delivering ahead of time.

Radix是Smart Money协议,它是下一代layer-1,没有当前layer-1的限制。 Radix在2018年已展示了140万TPS,这仍是目前为止最高纪录。我们新的共识算法“ Cerberus”在理论上可以无限扩展。将分3个步骤提供此功能:从50 TPS到数千TPS,再到无限TPS。我们拥有一支由ConsenSys,Microsoft,Nvidia和Y-Combinator组成的强大团队,他们在实现复杂产品方面经验丰富,目前为止我们的计划都超前完成了。

A big focus for us are developers. With Radix, developers can build fast without the massive security and exploit risks on Ethereum. Some information around this is already public, such as the Component Catalogue and Blueprints. We are excited to share more information soon. Also we think that we are incentivizing the right people in our network, the developers for creating valuable components and the validators for securing the network. Scalability is important of course, on Radix dApps can scale to millions of users without friction because we don’t have a built-in TPS limit thanks to our innovative technology.

对我们而言,重点是开发人员。借助Radix,开发人员可以快速构建而不需要大量的安全性,并且可以利用以太坊的风险。有关此的一些信息已经公开,例如“组件目录”和“蓝图”。我们很高兴能尽快分享更多信息。我们还认为,我们正在激励网络中的合适人员,开发人员来创建有价值的组件以及验证器以保护网络安全。可扩展性当然很重要,因为在Radix dApp上,我们的创新技术使我们没有内置的TPS限制,因此Radix dApp可以无数次地扩展到数百万个用户。

At Radix we have big goals, we want to fundamentally change the current financial system, because we think it is not a fair system. It is time to build a new financial system and Radix wants to be the platform on which the new decentralized financial system is built. To help with this, Radix has founded the GoodFi Alliance (GoodFi.com). The goal is to bundle the industry’s resources to educate and onboard the next 100 million people from the traditional financial system to DeFi. Many big players have joined us, like Aave, Chainlink, mStable and dozens of others. We are very thankful and are confidently looking into the future. We have 3 major milestones coming up with our Cassandra research network, our Betanet at the end of April and our mainnet by end of Q2. Exciting times at Radix!



(“Achieving global scalability while maintaining security and decentralization” is known as the impossible triangle of the blockchain. Radix claims to solve this problem and maintain the composability of the entire platform. How to do it?)

嘉宾:To achieve (practically) unlimited scalability Radix employs sharding of their network with 2^256 shards, which is roughly comparable to the total number of atoms in the known universe. Each of these 2^256 shards can process around 3000 TPS independently.

为了实现(实际上)无限的可扩展性,Radix使用2 ^ 256个分片对其网络进行分片,这与已知宇宙中的原子总数大致相当。 这些2 ^ 256个碎片中的每个碎片可以独立处理大约3000 TPS。

Due to the large amount of shards nearly all transactions are cross-shard transactions by default.


Radix’s cross-shard consensus algorithm Cerberus ensures atomic composability for these transactions across the entire plattform. Cerberus is highly parallelized, atomic and asynchronous which enables fast and atomic cross-shard transactions at global scale.

Radix的跨分片共识算法Cerberus确保整个平台上这些交易的原子可组合性。 Cerberus是高度并行化的,原子的和异步的,可在全球范围内实现快速和原子的跨碎片事务。

Cerberus dynamically braids the involved shards of a cross-shard transaction together and the whole transaction either succeeds or fails together in an atomic way.


主持人:Radix定位于构建去中心化金融的Layer 1平台,那么和市面上其他的Layer 1平台比如Near相比,同为主打分片扩容技术,Radix有什么区别、优势?

(Radix is positioned to build a Layer 1 platform for decentralized finance. Compared with other Layer 1 platforms on the market such as Near, what are the differences and advantages of Radix with the main sharding expansion technology?)

嘉宾:The unique advantage of Radix’s sharding approach is that it is the only one which does not break atomic composability while achieving linear scalability. All other competing sharded layer 1 platforms sacrifice composability to get some scalability via sharding, which is not sustainable.


Near’s scalability is limited because it requires too many nodes (1 million nodes are needed for only total 10K TPS) and also breaks atomic composability.

Near的可扩展性受到限制,因为它需要太多的节点(总共10K TPS需要100万个节点),而且破坏了原子的可组合性。

Polkadot introduces sharding with parachains, but breaks atomic composability between parachains/shards, because a smart contract can only send messages to another parachain and Polkadot doesn’t support the concept of atomic cross-shard transactions.


Elrond has shards, but their metachain will become a bottleneck in the future, because every cross-shard transaction needs to be initialised and finalised on their metachain and also Elrond does not support atomic composability across shards.


Cosmos has shards, but dapps are separated on side-chains which breaks atomic composability between them.


Ethereum 2.0 canceled their layer 1 sharding efforts (or delayed it far away in the future) and are going for layer 2 scaling now. This means smart contracts will not be able to be executed in their layer 1 and their layer 2 scaling approach sacrifices atomic composability.


Avalanche, Cardano, Fantom, Solana, Algorand and Ethereum 2.0 are not sharded in the first place and therefore will run into bottlenecks sooner or later.


Without sharding there is an upper limit for the transactions per second, because every single node needs to process every transaction at least once and additionally there are storage issues, since the ledger state grows over time to a point where you either can’t handle it anymore on a single node or you need a supercomputer which leads to centralisation.


主持人:如何使以太坊上的defi dapp迁移到Radix网络?

How does Radix make the defi dapp on Ethereum migrate to the Radix network?

嘉宾:Gas costs are killing the usability of the Ethereum ledger. Solidity is a nightmare for DeFi developers. Right now, most of the Ethereum ecosystem is actively looking for ways to mitigate the scalability issues, and every single project is constantly trying to mitigate the security issues of solidity. Layer 2s break the composability that is so critical to DeFi, and projects like Polkadot, Avalanche and Ethereum 2.0 do no better on this front.

交易成本正在扼杀以太坊账本的可用性。 SolidityDeFi开发人员的噩梦。 目前,大多数以太坊生态系统都在积极寻求缓解可扩展性问题的方法,并且每个项目都在不断地尝试缓解稳定性的安全性问题。 2层打破了对DeFi至关重要的可组合性,而PolkadotAvalancheEthereum 2.0等项目在这方面并没有做得更好。

To ease the transition from Solidity to Scrypto, one of our partners, Noether, is creating a system that allows people to migrate their Solidity code across to the Radix network: https://www.radixdlt.com/post/object-computing-and-noether-dlt-develop-ethereum-based-smart-contract-platform-for-the-radix-ledger/


In addition to this, Radix recently launched the GoodFi initiative with some of the leaders in the DeFi space to help bring 100m users into DeFi by 2025: https://www.radixdlt.com/post/radix-launches-goodfi-alliance-with-chainlink-aave-messari-mstable-more/


主持人: Radix提出了一种新的共识算法Cerberus,相较于其他算法有什么优异之处?该算法能否应用到以太坊、波卡网络中?

Radix proposed a new consensus algorithm Cerberus. Compared with other algorithms, what are the advantages? Can this algorithm be applied to Ethereum and Polkadot networks?

嘉宾:Cerberus allows linear scalability without breaking atomic composability. This means to scale the network you simply add nodes, but do not break the magic ability to call many DeFi smart contracts simultaneously for things like flash loans and arbitrage trades. These are the sophisticated financial transactions that drive huge amounts of liquidity in DeFi and mean that DeFi is now competing directly with centralised exchanges like Binance.


Fundamentally Ethereum 2.0 and Polkadot break these very important characteristics.


Cerberus does not because it is not a blockchain, it is not a directed acyclic graph (DAG) –  it is a fundamentally new form of consensus protocol and data structure that has taken eight years to research and develop. Cerberus allows Radix to scale just like TCP/IP. As more nodes are added to the network, Radix can process more transactions – scaling linearly without any limit, without breaking atomic composability – which means that transactions either settle all together – or not at all.

Cerberus并不是因为它不是区块链,而是有向无环图(DAG),从根本上来说是一种新的共识协议和数据结构形式,需要花费八年的时间进行研究和开发。 Cerberus允许Radix像TCP / IP一样进行扩展。随着更多节点被添加到网络中,Radix可以处理更多事务-线性扩展而没有任何限制,而不会破坏原子的可组合性-这意味着事务要么全部结算,要么根本不结算。

No blockchain solution presently has this feature – which includes Ethereum and Polkadot.


It will not be possible to run Cerberus on the Ethereum or Polkadot networks – the way they have been built is so fundamentally different to how we have built Radix from the data structure all the way through to the execution environment.


主持人: 对于目前DEFI的趋势怎么看?Radix又将有怎样的市场规划去获取更多用户?

What do you think of the current trend of DEFI? What market plan does Radix have to acquire more users?

嘉宾:DeFi is growing quickly. The total value locked (TVL) in DeFi has grown from less than $1 billion in February 2020, to over $40 billion by February 2021. We expect DeFi to continue growing exponentially as it offers better yield and accessibility to financial products than traditional finance. We’re also really excited by new features in DeFi that are not possible in traditional finance – such as flash loans. The pace of innovation is truly breathtaking.

DeFi发展迅速。 DeFi的总锁定价值(TVL)已从2020年2月的不到10亿美元增长到2021年2月的400亿美元。我们预计DeFi将继续以指数级的速度增长,因为它提供的收益和金融产品的可及性都比传统金融更好。 我们也对DeFi的新功能感到非常激动,这些功能在传统金融中是无法实现的,例如快速贷款。 创新的步伐确实令人叹为观止。

Our growth strategy is comprised of three elements:

● provide developers the tools to build fast without breaking things – enabled by Radix Engine v2 and Scrypto

● reward and incentivise developers to build the best and safest DeFi primitives and dApps – enabled by component catalog and developer royalties

● allow DeFi to scale in as friction-free a way as possible – enabled by Cerberus.


●由Radix Engine v2和Scrypto支持,为开发人员提供了快速构建而不会破坏其他的工具



We think these three features make Radix uniquely positioned to propel DeFi into the mainstream. Fundamentally this space is still about making it easy to innovate – it is only through this innovation will we discover the applications that will properly break through to the mainstream.

我们认为这三个功能使Radix具有独特的定位,可以推动DeFi成为主流。 从根本上讲,这个空间仍然是使创新变得容易的方法-只有通过这种创新,我们才能发现能够正确突破主流的应用程序。


For the current increasingly popular DEFI products, do you believe that the DEFI field is saturated, or there are still many opportunities?

嘉宾:DeFi is absolutely not saturated – it is still in its infancy. Compared to the existing financial system, DeFi is tiny. We think DeFi is at the very beginning of a virtuous cycle of becoming more accessible and adopted, which in turn attracts liquidity and investment, which finances innovation, and ultimately provides greater financial choice to individuals and organisations.

目前DeFi并不饱和且仍处于起步阶段。 与现有的财务系统相比,DeFi的涉及范围还很窄。 我们认为,DeFi正处于一个更容易获得和采用的良性循环的开始,这反过来又吸引了流动性和投资,为创新提供了资金,并最终为个人和组织提供了更多的财务选择。


The Radix network is broken down into many shards. How to achieve consistency in such a distributed database?

嘉宾:Data read/writes in the Radix network are deterministic – meaning that a transaction and data always maps directly to a specific address in the shard space. Equally, the mapping of nodes to shards is deterministic, meaning that given a transaction you are always able to tell both where it is going to live in the shard space, and which validators are servicing that shard space.

Radix网络中的数据读/写是确定性的-意味着事务和数据始终直接映射到分片空间中的特定地址。 同样,节点到分片的映射是确定性的,这意味着在给定事务的情况下,您始终能够知道分片空间中将要驻留的位置以及为该分片空间提供服务的验证程序。

Lastly, writes are only committed once true finality has been achieved – this is true BFT consensus, meaning that only once a threshold is reached can a write be committed. As the network prefers safety over liveness, the consistency of the ledger is always maintained.

最后,只有在达到真正的确定性之后才提交写入操作-这是真正的BFT共识,这意味着只有达到阈值后才可以提交写入操作。 由于网络优先考虑安全性而不是活动性,因此总账本的一致性始终保持不变。